Experimental Hematology Today 1979

Experimental Hematology Today 1980
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The diagnosis and treatment for blood diseases lead the highest level in China. The multidisciplinary clinical laboratory medicine center consists of 13 specialized laboratories, including clinical laboratory technology, Clinical Biochemistry, Clinical Immunology, Clinical Microbiology, hemolysis and coagulation test, cell morphology analysis, clinical chemistry, chromosomal analysis, cell culture, flow cytometry, clinical molecular biology, Nuclear Medicine and pathology.

There are more than test items carried out in the clinical laboratory medicine center, which covers the examination for the diagnosis of blood diseases. There are several well-known hematologists in the expert consultation center to provide advice of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for patients with severe and intricate blood diseases.

The outpatients from all parts of the country and part of regions in Asia are around 40, annually. The research part of the institute consists of 6 departments: hematopoietic stem cells; thrombosis, hemostasis and vascular biology; materia medica and pharmacology; cellular and molecular biology; immunology and biotherapy; and molecular biology of hematological oncology.

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The main aspects of research are the study of hematopoietic stem cell biology and plasticity, basic and applied study of hematopoiesis regulation and angiogenesis regulators, study on development of normal and abnormal hematopoietic cells and lymphocytes, especially the mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of hematological malignancy.

IH has set up six major technological platforms for stem cell banking, stem cell transplantation, antibody development, GMP pilot-scale production of genetic engineering drugs, high through-put screening of drug technology and SPF experiment animal facility.

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Experimental Hematology Today 1979

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The first was the "islamization of universities', a notion that is open to broad interpretation. According to Article 15 of the Fifth Five-Year Economic Development Plan , university programmes in the humanities were to teach the virtues of critical thinking, theorization and multidisciplinary studies. A number of research centres were also to be developed in the humanities.

The plan's second thrust was to make Iran the second-biggest player in science and technology by , behind Turkey. In , spending stood at 0. In , the government adopted a National Master Plan for Science and Education to which reiterates the goals of Vision It lays particular stress on developing university research and fostering university—industry ties to promote the commercialization of research results.

Background

His writings were translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona under the title: De jebra et almucabola. Google Scholar Download references. Ashish R. It will be used to understand and predict the physical location of natural and man-made objects in orbit around the Earth. In the 10th century work of Shahnameh , Ferdowsi describes a Caesarean section performed on Rudabeh , during which a special wine agent was prepared by a Zoroastrian priest and used to produce unconsciousness for the operation. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July The applications described in this mining are not else unwilling.

In line with the goals of Vision , policy-makers have made a concerted effort to increase the number of students and academic researchers. After peaking at this level, higher education spending stood at 0.

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Higher education spending has resisted better than public expenditure on education overall. The latter peaked at 4. The result of greater spending on higher education has been a steep rise in tertiary enrollment. Between and , student rolls swelled from 2. Enrollment has progressed in most fields. The most popular in were social sciences 1. Women also made up two-thirds of medical students. This is comparable to the ratio in the Republic of Korea and Thailand one in seven and Japan one in ten.

The number of PhD graduates has progressed at a similar pace as university enrollment overall. Natural sciences and engineering have proved increasingly popular among both sexes, even if engineering remains a male-dominated field. There has been an interesting evolution in the gender balance among PhD students. Although data are not readily available on the number of PhD graduates choosing to stay on as faculty, the relatively modest level of domestic research spending would suggest that academic research suffers from inadequate funding.

By , there were about 14 foreign students attending Iranian universities, most of whom came from Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey.

ISEH Student Awards Postdoctoral Fellow Awards

In a speech delivered at the University of Tehran in October , President Rouhani recommended greater interaction with the outside world. One in four Iranian PhD students were studying abroad in In , one in seven international students in Malaysia was of Iranian origin. There is a lot of scope for the development of twinning between universities for teaching and research, as well as for student exchanges.

According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics , the number of full-time equivalent researchers rose from to per million inhabitants between and This corresponds to an increase of more than 2 researchers, from 52 to 54 The world average is 1 per million inhabitants.

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In , half of researchers were employed in academia The number of firms declaring research activities more than doubled between and , from 30 to 64 The increasingly tough sanctions regime oriented the Iranian economy towards the domestic market and, by erecting barriers to foreign imports, encouraged knowledge-based enterprises to localize production.

Expenditure peaked at 0. Iran's government has devoted much of its budget to research on high technologies such as nanotechnology , biotechnology , stem cell research and information technology The government's limited budget is being directed towards supporting small innovative businesses, business incubators and science and technology parks, the type of enterprises which employ university graduates. It was intended for one-third of this amount to come from abroad but, so far, FDI has remained elusive.

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Within the country's Fifth Five-Year Economic Development Plan — , a National Development Fund has been established to finance efforts to diversify the economy. A law passed in provides an appropriate mechanism, the Innovation and Prosperity Fund. Public and private universities wishing to set up private firms may also apply to the fund. Some 37 industries trade shares on the Tehran Stock Exchange.

IDRO has set up special purpose companies in each high-tech sector to coordinate investment and business development. In , IDRO set up a capital fund to finance the intermediary stages of product- and technology-based business development within these companies. As of , Iran had officially 31 science and technology parks nationwide. Fars Province , with 8 parks and Razavi Khorasan Province , with 7 parks, are ranked second and third after Tehran respectively. As of , Iran's national innovation system NIS had not experienced a serious entrance to the technology creation phase and mainly exploited the technologies developed by other countries e.

In , Iran ranked second in the percentage of graduates in science and engineering in the Global Innovation Index. Iran also ranked fourth in tertiary education , 26 in knowledge creation, 31 in gross percentage of tertiary enrollment, 41 in general infrastructure, 48 in human capital as well as research and 51 in innovation efficiency ratio. In recent years several drugmakers in Iran are gradually developing the ability to innovate, away from generic drugs production itself.

According to the State Registration Organization of Deeds and Properties , a total of 9, national inventions were registered in Iran during Compared with the previous year, there was a percent increase in the number of inventions registered by the organization. Iran has several funds to support entrepreneurship and innovation: [37]. The 5th Development Plan —15 requires the private sector to communicate research needs to universities so that universities would coordinate research projects in line with these needs, with sharing of expenses by both sides. Supporting the development of small and medium enterprises in Iran will strengthen greatly the supplier network.

As of , Iran had industrial parks and zones, of which are ready to be ceded to the private sector. As of , Iran had nearly 3, knowledge-based companies. A report by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization regarding small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs [52] identified the following impediments to industrial development:. The economic complexity ranking of Iran has increased by 1 places over the past 50 years from 66th in to 65th in Despite these problems, Iran has progressed in various scientific and technological fields, including petrochemical , pharmaceutical , aerospace , defense , and heavy industry.

Even in the face of economic sanctions , Iran is emerging as an industrialized country. Parallel to academic research, several companies have been founded in Iran during last few decades. For example, CinnaGen , established in , is one of the pioneering biotechnology companies in the region. CinnaGen won Biotechnology Asia Innovation Awards due to its achievements and innovation in biotechnology research. Theoretical and computational sciences are highly developed in Iran. Iranian biophysicists , especially molecular biophysicists, have gained international reputations since the s [ citation needed ].

High field nuclear magnetic resonance facility, micro calorimetry , circular dichroism , and instruments for single protein channel studies have been provided in Iran during the past two decades. Tissue engineering and research on biomaterials have just started to emerge in biophysics departments.

by S. J. Baum

Considering the country's brain drain and its poor political relationship with the United States and some other Western countries, Iran's scientific community remains productive, even while economic sanctions make it difficult for universities to buy equipment or to send people to the United States to attend scientific meetings. The Comprehensive Scientific Plan has been devised based on about 51, pages of documents and includes scientific projects that must be implemented by the year With over medical research facilities and 76 medical magazine indexes available in the country, Iran is the 19th country in medical research and is set to become the 10th within 10 years In areas such as rheumatology , hematology , and bone marrow trasplantation , Iranian medical scientists publish regularly.

Internationally, this center is one of the largest bone marrow transplantation centers and has carried out a large number of successful transplantations. Three children's medical centers at universities have approved PHO fellowship programs. The gasteroenterology research center based at Tehran University of Medical Sciences has produced increasing numbers of scientific publications since its establishment. The Shiraz Nemazi transplant center, also one of the pioneering transplant units of Iran, performed the first Iranian kidney transplant in and the first Iranian liver transplant in The first heart transplant in Iran was performed in in Tabriz.

The first lung transplant was performed in , and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in , both at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Iran ranks fifth in the world in kidney transplants. This act helped to expand heart, lung, and liver transplantation programs. By , Iran had performed liver, 77 heart, 7 lung, bone marrow, 20, cornea, and 16, renal transplantations.

The 3-year renal transplant patient survival rate was Neuroscience is also emerging in Iran. Iranian surgeons treating wounded Iranian veterans during the Iran—Iraq War invented a new neurosurgical treatment for brain injured patients that laid to rest the previously prevalent technique developed by US Army surgeon Dr Ralph Munslow. It has been said that these new treatment guidelines benefited US congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords who had been shot in the head. Iran has a biotechnology sector that is one of the most advanced in the developing world. Agricultural research has been successful in releasing high-yielding varieties with higher stability as well as tolerance to harsh weather conditions.

The agriculture researchers are working jointly with international Institutes to find the best procedures and genotypes to overcome produce failure and to increase yield. In , Iran's first genetically modified GM rice was approved by national authorities and is being grown commercially for human consumption. In addition to GM rice, Iran has produced several GM plants in the laboratory, such as insect-resistant maize; cotton; potatoes and sugar beets; herbicide-resistant canola; salinity- and drought-tolerant wheat; and blight-resistant maize and wheat.

In the last months of , Iranian biotechnologists announced that they, as the third manufacturer in the world, have sent CinnoVex a recombinant type of Interferon b1a to the market. In , AryoGen Biopharma established the biggest and most modern knowledge-based facility for production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in the region. These anti-cancer drugs are now produced by only two to three western companies. Iran had some significant successes in nuclear technology during recent decades, especially in nuclear medicine. However, little connection exists between Iran's scientific society and that of the nuclear program of Iran.

Academic Affiliations

Iran is the 7th country in production of uranium hexafluoride or UF 6. It is among the few countries in the world that has the technology to produce zirconium alloys. The Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation was established in to promote educational and research activities in the fields of design, robotics , and automation.

Besides these professional groups, several robotics groups work in Iranian high schools. The robot can be used for handling sensitive tasks without the need for cooperating with human beings. The robot is taking slow steps similar to human beings, harmonious movements of hands and feet and other movements similar to humans. Iran's first supercomputer launched in was also fabricated by Amirkabir University of Technology.

The Linux -cluster machine has a reported "theoretical peak performance of gig-flops". Iran is ranked 12th in the field of chemistry These include laboratory equipment, antibacterial strings, power station filters and construction related equipment and materials. The council determines the general policies for the development of nanotechnology and co-ordinates their implementation. In the past decade, nanotech companies have been established in eight industries.

Today, five research centres specialize in nanotechnology, including the Nanotechnology Research Centre at Sharif University, which established Iran's first doctoral programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology a decade ago. In , NIC established an Econano network to promote the scientific and industrial development of nanotechnology among fellow members of the Economic Cooperation Organization, namely Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Iran recorded strong growth in the number of articles on nanotechnology between and , according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science. By , Iran ranked seventh for this indicator. The number of articles per million population has tripled to 59, overtaking Japan in the process. Few patents are being granted to Iranian inventors in nanotechnology, as yet, however. The ratio of nanotechnology patents to articles was 0. The Safir Ambassador satellite carrier successfully launched the Omid satellite into orbit in February Iran is one of the few countries capable of producing ton sea patrol aircraft.

Iran wants to collaborate internationally and become internationally competitive in astronomy, says the University of Michigan's Carl Akerlof, an adviser to the Iranian project. It will be used to understand and predict the physical location of natural and man-made objects in orbit around the Earth. Iran is ranked 12th in the field of energy Iran possesses the technology to launch superfast anti-submarine rockets that can travel at the speed of meters per second under water, making the country second only to Russia in possessing the technology.

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Iran annually hosts international science festivals. Iranians welcome scientists from all over the world to Iran for a visit and participation in seminars or collaborations. Many Nobel laureates and influential scientists such as Bruce Alberts , F. Some universities also hosted American and European scientists as guest lecturers during recent decades. Although sanctions have caused a shift in Iran's trading partners from West to East, scientific collaboration has remained largely oriented towards the West.