Later, Elizabeth celebrates Ciel's thirteenth birthday with a party orchestrated at the Phantomhive estate, wishing to see him happy again. The owner of the tower who wants to kill Ciel is revealed to be Angela. While walking in the London streets, Ciel and Sebastian find themselves in the presence of Prince Soma and his servant, Agni , who are searching for an unknown Indian woman.
Prince Soma orders Agni to attack Ciel, and Sebastian is stunned by his agility. Unfortunately, Ciel later begrudgingly lets the two take up temporary residence at the Phantomhive estate. The story of Kali , the Hindu goddess of power, is explained. Ciel and Prince Soma tells Sebastian and Agni to duel in a fencing match, only for it to end in a draw. Agni convinces Bardroy, Finnian, and Mey-Rin to help prepare supper together. He then reveals that he is searching for his former nursemaid, Mina, who had left him for an unknown wealthy Englishman, much to his despair.
Harold West, a wealthy businessman and a merchant of Indian goods, is responsible for Agni's betrayal and Mina's wedlock. Sebastian intervenes when West orders Agni to attack Prince Soma. Sebastian tells Prince Soma to face the truth, in that Agni would abandon him someday. Ciel preaches to Prince Soma to never give up on finding reaching one's goals, using the death of his parents as an example. A curry festival competition sponsored by the Queen Victoria is mentioned, and West's plans involving Agni and Meena are revealed.
It is said that Agni is talented at preparing curry, making it seemingly impossible for any competition. Agni recalls his past, remembering his hopeless life until he met a godly Prince Soma. At the curry exhibition, Prince Soma finds Mina, who confesses that she had escape from India in order to free herself from the caste system. Queen Victoria, escorted by her butler, Ashe Landers , makes a grand entrance before the start of the curry festival competition. Sebastian creates his curry with chocolate, Agni uses blue lobster, and another chef uses a mysterious spice that was given to him by Angela.
Ciel sympathizes for Agni's loyalty, while Agni weeps for Mina's arrogance. Sebastian ends up winning with his curry buns, but the people who ate the curry with the mysterious spice become possessed and start attacking others. Sebastian and Agni fight them off and they are cured after a taste of Sebastian's curry buns. With the competition over, Prince Soma and Agni bid farewell to Ciel and Sebastian and return to their homeland. Ciel is informed that the abandoned Ludlow Castle that his estate owns is haunted by ghosts and the workers are too spooked to continue remodeling it into a hotel.
He and Sebastian head to the castle to investigate. There they encounter the ghosts of two princes who were assassinated four centuries ago, Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. Ciel plays a game of chess against Edward V to pass the night, but the former loses and the latter claims Sebastian as his winnings. Sebastian must serve as butler for both Edward and Richard, an order made by Ciel himself. Come nightfall, Ciel and Sebastian find a secret passageway inside the library of the castle.
Edward shows them the skulls of his family on a chessboard, revealing that Richard has the missing knight chess piece. After a struggle to obtain the skull from the clutches of Richard, it is unveiled that Edward was holding a grudge against the very man who assassinated the two princes. Once the mystery is solved, the princes thank Ciel and Sebastian before departing for the afterlife, and Ciel says he will leave the castle as is with no new renovations just before they depart. The two princes however, did actually disappear from the Tower of London.
Ashe informs Ciel that an abandoned monastery in Preston, Lancashire has been taken over by a cult that is possibly planning to overthrow the government. Ciel and Sebastian meet up with Grell and the Undertaker, finding out that the cinematic records were stolen. The four head to the monastery to investigate. Sebastian seduces a nun named Mathilda Simmons, in order to soon learn that the cult uses a strange doomsday book to recruit new members and expose their pasts.
Ciel, Sebastian, and Grell witness a cleansing ceremony in the cathedral. Ciel is later summoned that night, and he gets taken away by Angela, who reveals herself to be an angel. Angela uses the cinematic record to force Ciel recall his painful past, including the events surrounding his parents' murder.
Meanwhile, Sebastian and Grell go the Grim Reaper library to see Spears, who tells them that an Angel cannot change the past but rather change the impression of the past. Angela then uses the cinematic record to trap Ciel in a meadow face-to-face with his parents, all in order to achieve purification.
Ciel's overwhelming hatred enables him to overcome the angel and re-enter the present world. While Angela attempts to purify the members of the cult at the cathedral, the Undertaker uses a death bookmark on the cinematic record of Matilda to transport Sebastian, Grell, and Spears to incapacitate Angela. It is then that Angela destroys the monastery - causing all of the monks and nuns to evacuate, which leads to her evasion.
Ash wants Ciel to retrieve an item from Stanley's body. Ciel goes to Lau, who controls the area where Stanley's body was discovered, for information. Lau does not recognize the name, but mentions a new drug, Lady Blanc , the name of which reminds Ciel of Angela. A large amount of the illicit drug is later found in one of Ciel's warehouses. Lau and Ciel are charged with drug trafficking, but Lau escapes. Ciel is separated from Sebastian, who is taken to the Tower of London. It is revealed that orders for the arrest were given by Ashe with the drugs planted as a pretext.
Sebastian is tortured in the Tower of London by Angela herself. Ciel continues to pursue Stanley's case on his own, though Fred Abberline , inspector of the Scotland Yard, declares his allegiance with Ciel. Ciel frees Sebastian by summoning him through their contract, and together they manage to get onto Lau's junk.
Abberline intercepts in time to take a fatal blow for Ciel and subsequently dies from the wound before Ciel's eyes. Sebastian strikes a blow at Lau to prevent him from continuing to fight, and escapes from the sinking junk with his master. Ciel's servants want to impress their master, though the three seem to cause chaos instead. Ciel ponders on the Lady Blanc case, especially recounting Abberline's sacrificial death and Lau's schematic plot. The servants turn to Elizabeth about what the estate was like before they were hired, as she responded that the place was a happy environment.
So they show off their hidden talents in an effort to cheer up their master and protect the Phantomhive estate. Elizabeth asks Ciel to teach her how to play chess until sundown. The backgrounds of Mey-Rin, Bardroy, and Finnian are revealed in a series of flashbacks. Mey-Rin was a sniper for hire, being asked to assassinate politicians. Bardroy was a soldier in the military, being the only survivor in his unit. Finnian was an imprisoned human test subject, being given superhuman strength.
In the end, Ciel is much amused when he sees his servants covered in filth. Ciel and Sebastian head off to the Exposition Universelle in Paris to meet Queen Victoria and become wrapped up in the festivities. A taxidermy monkey suddenly springs to life and destroys the lighting equipment, so Sebastian makes Ciel escape ahead to an elevator in the Eiffel Tower.
Inside he finds Queen Victoria waiting for him. The two arrive at the top of the tower, where she reveals that Ashe granted her youth. Sebastian and Ashe engage in a duel, raining debris down onto people below, so Ciel calls Sebastian off to prevent from hurting them, which angers Sebastian. The next morning Ciel realizes that Sebastian has left him alone at the hotel and is non-responsive to his summoning, so Ciel attempts to make his way back to London on his own.
He barely makes it to the port, where he spends the night sleeping cold and hungry on the docks. Meanwhile at the Phantomhive estate, Ashe takes control of Pluto and sets the property around the mansion on fire. The Phantomhive estate is burnt to the ground and Tanaka is seen writing in his diary alone in the debris. Ciel stows away in the cargo hold of a London-bound steamship, where he meets the Undertaker, who informs Ciel that he is about to die. The great fire in London has taken many lives yet it remains unabated, turning the once-beautiful city into a literal "hell on earth".
Ciel wanders through the streets and eventually finds his servants trying to tranquilize a rampaging Pluto. He comes to a decision and gives the servants the order to kill Pluto. It is seen that Angela and Ashe are merged as one angel, as they try to convince Sebastian to join forces with them, but to no avail. Ciel then makes his way to Windsor Castle on horseback, where he discovers Queen Victoria dead. The palace guards believe that Ciel murdered her, as they shoot him. When the guards try to shoot him again, Sebastian appears and saves Ciel.
The pair takes off toward the heart of London. Ciel heads to the Tower Bridge that is still in mid-construction with Sebastian, where he finds a merged Angela and Ashe. Ciel commands Sebastian to kill the angel. Ciel's servants have taken down Pluto. Grell, the Undertaker, and Spears cut off the supply of souls that fuel the strength of Angela and Ashe. And Sebastian reverts to his true demonic form to defeat them. In the aftermath, a false Queen Victoria emerges and urges London to begin rebuilding.
Ciel wakes up being ferried by Sebastian on an ominous river to an unknown location. Sebastian hands Ciel Tanaka's diary, in which Tanaka details the former Earl Phantomhive's knowledge of his impending death. Sebastian and Ciel land at the rubble of a mansion, where Ciel calmly waits for Sebastian to take his soul. Ciel's final order to Sebastian is to make the process as painful as possible, so as to carve the pain of his life into his soul, to which Sebastian agrees.
Ciel and Sebastian celebrate the third anniversary of Funtom Company by hosting Hamlet as the play for an orphan charity. However, all the actors hired to perform in the play cannot arrive in town for another week due to a shipwreck. Since the play cannot be postponed, Sebastian is ordered by Ciel to make the play a success regardless. Sebastian rallies up the whole group together to be in the play, and they are visited by mostly every character in the series in this episode.
Though the plot was ultimately altered, the play turns out, for the most part, a success. Earl Alois Trancy is awakened by his butler, Claude Faustus , who announces to him that his uncle Arnold Trancy, the Viscount of Druitt , and a priest are coming for a visit. Although the mansion has already been redecorated, Alois orders Claude to return it to the original state because his uncle suspects Alois's legitimacy as the former head's son. Alois tells the three of his traumatic childhood, when he was kidnapped at birth and sent to a village into slavery, that is until he realized he was the only survivor of a plague that later spread throughout the village.
Alois amusingly gives Arnold a large sum of money as a parting gift. A storm soon breaks out, and a cloaked man appears asking for shelter. In return for revealing the contents of his luggage, the cloaked man requests entry into the mansion's basement. Alois shows him a special black tea box, said to help undergo an aromatherapy of darkness. However, a suspicious Claude attacks him, revealing his identity as Sebastian Michaelis , hiding the lifeless body of Earl Ciel Phantomhive in his suitcase.
Surprised to see Ciel in the suitcase, Alois orders Claude to capture Sebastian, as the two make their way to the main hall of the mansion. Sebastian shatters the chandelier, revealing Alois to have nyctophobia , begging Claude not to leave his side. Sebastian escapes by breaking through the window as he runs through the forest in the storm. As the storm clears, Sebastian opens the tea box which contains a blue ring. Once it has been placed on Ciel's finger, Sebastian tells him to wake up. Ciel, now reawakened, is taken to newly built bridge, where he gives his speech upon its grand opening.
Ciel then runs into Elizabeth Midford , who wishes to seek a rare white stag that lives in the forest.
Ciel promptly refuses but eventually agrees once Elizabeth starts crying. In the meantime, Lau and Ran-Mao hold bets on whether or not they will find the stag. When a downpour occurs, Ciel tries to convince Elizabeth to stop the search for now and resume at another time. However, this only upsets her, as she runs away saying that he does not understand how she feels about this. It is later found out that Elizabeth is trapped on a boat in the fast river currents.
Lau points out that the old dam is about to burst. Ciel orders Sebastian to stop the flood and vows to save Elizabeth by himself. Surprisingly, Sebastian breaks the dam upriver, causing a huge amount of water to rush in. The boat is flipped over but Ciel manages to grab hold of Elizabeth. Ciel wakes up in Sebastian's arms and Elizabeth hugs him, apologizing in tears. Ciel yells at Sebastian for not stopping the flood, which prompts Sebastian to say that he changed the shape of the river to prevent future floods. Elizabeth is still upset that they were unable to find the white stag, but Sebastian replies that the white stag is just over the hill.
The group runs over to look and discover that the white stag is a hill figure. While Ciel and Elizabeth hold hands, Elizabeth explains that if they find the white stag, their life will be filled with happiness. Back at the Phantomhive estate, Sebastian delivers a plate of letters that are invitations and interviews regarding the discovery of the white stag hill figure. Ciel is asked to investigate a recurring case, all involving a young bride who has been burned alive in front of her groom during the night in the streets of London.
Ciel and Sebastian approach the Scotland Yard for any records, but it is to no help, as they remain classified. Ciel and Sebastian then turn to the Undertaker for information. He shows them a pile of sparkling ashes in a tiny vial. At the funeral, the photographer and his overweight wife, Turner and Margaret, present the groom with the last photograph the couple took together moments before the death of his bride, however the groom drops the frame due to his bandaged hands.
Upon further investigation, Ciel and Sebastian find out that all the victims were newlywed women and had gone to the photographer's studio for their wedding picture. Also, the pair discover that the sparkling substance in the ashes of the most recent victim is magnesium powder that is likened to the powder used in flash pans for photography. It is also mentioned that Lau recently sold his largest shipment of magnesium to Turner.
When the two arrive at the studio, Margaret destroys the studio by sprinkling powdered magnesium everywhere and ignites it with her camera flash. She has become completely insane because Turner made her life miserable without any passionate love toward her. The Grim Reaper, Grell Sutcliff , then appears and reveals to Ciel and Sebastian that his current assignment is to collect Margaret's soul.
Ciel pursues Margaret and finds her atop Big Ben Clock Tower dumping barrels of magnesium powder out the window and into the streets of London. She begins attacking Ciel, but is stopped by Sebastian and Grell before she can do any more damage. When Ciel tries to interrogate her, she suddenly bursts into flames, stating that the man with golden eyes told her to do this in order to find passion. Later, Ciel discovers that the records of the previous cases were classified because the Trancy estate had investigated them.
Sebastian explains to Ciel that three years ago, the head of the Trancy family died, leaving his son, Alois Trancy , to take over as Earl and head of the family. As Ciel and Sebastian board a train, they see a crate being carried onto the train. It is revealed that inside the crate is an extremely valuable mummy in a sarcophagus. The two are sent on a case involving kidnapping for ransom.
After the two meet a group of strange passengers, a policeman resembling Fred Aberline causes mass hysteria when he reveals there is a murderer held by police on the train. He later reveals himself as Aberline's twin brother in the dining car, but Ciel has no recollection of him. Afterwards, Ciel encounters the porter from the station who carried the crate onto the train, recognizing him by the scratches on his hand, and concludes that he is the kidnapper.
The porter flees to caboose lounge car, disconnects the cable, and demands the money from a nobleman, whose son is held hostage. Sebastian stops this from happening, but is soon distraught when the kidnapper explains that he implanted a bomb inside the train that will detonate once the train stops, urging him to pursue the train. Meanwhile, Ciel finds the kidnapped boy in the sarcophagus, but is taken hostage by an aforementioned murderer who demands the train be stopped. However, not only is it revealed to all that the train cannot be stopped due to the bomb, but the train is headed for a broken bridge, and there may be an outbreak of cholera.
Many of the strange passengers rise to aid the situation, but Sebastian denies their offer and insists on taking care of everything himself. He amends the crisis by getting rid of the murderer, tearing off the dining car roof containing the explosives, and halting the train just before it reaches the broken bridge. Claude, who had been in the dining car the entire time, confronts Sebastian, presenting him with an invitation to a costume ball at the Trancy estate and claiming it would resolve Ciel's revenge.
Sebastian warns Prince Soma and Agni that Ciel has lost his memory, telling them to pretend nothing is wrong in order to not cause any trouble. However, Soma bursts into tears around Ciel when he arrives at the Trancy estate for the costume ball, but thanks to the effort of Agni, Ciel has no real suspicions concerning his memory.
Ciel warns Sebastian to be on his guard, because he feels uneasy in the mansion. During the costume ball, a passing maid spills red wine all over Ciel's costume, so she takes Ciel to a private location to clean the mess before it stains. After Ciel notices the spill has not been thoroughly cleaned, the maid begins acting strangely, commenting on his blue eye. She licks his ear before ultimately running off with his eye patch.
Ciel chases after her, eventually reaching the cellar, where Ciel begins to hallucinate, hearing and seeing of when Sebastian was first there for the special black tea box. The visions cause Ciel to become frantic, so much that he vomits before fleeing to the woods outside. Ciel already figures out that the maid was really Alois all along. Claude and the servant triplets join Alois as Sebastian returns to Ciel. Confident his butler is superior to Ciel's, Alois threatens to slaughter everyone attending the costume ball if Ciel does not willingly give himself up.
To Alois's surprise, Ciel agrees. Alois then orders Claude to capture Ciel, while Ciel commands Sebastian to protect him, no matter the cost. Sebastian, with Ciel in his arms, manages to defeat and evade the servant triplets. Nonetheless, the three do not give up, as another fight erupts between them and Sebastian. Meanwhile at the estate, Hannah Annafellows plays the armonica for the guests, but the glassy sound soon becomes painful to hear. Hannah has taken control of the majority of the guests with her music, having turned them into hostile zombies.
While Lau and Ran-Mao have corks in their ears, Agni assists Prince Soma and his friends to retain control of themselves while fending off the controlled guests. Sebastian fights off the servant triplets, and rushes to the mansion with Ciel, after the two heard the haunting tune from outside. Sebastian arrives to counter Hannah's melody with his harmony, using a glass harp. As the armonica shatters, the guests are freed and applaud Sebastian's performance. Alois and Claude take this chance to make an entrance, and soon after, Sebastian and Claude agree to have a private conversation.
On a lake, Sebastian and Claude duke it out. During their squabble, it is revealed that Sebastian could not devour Ciel's soul because he had "become a void". It appears Claude somehow snatched Ciel's soul before Sebastian, but could not use it due to it being "incomplete" without also having his body. Afterward, the two butlers strike a deal in which Alois will be the new target of Ciel's revenge, and form a contract by dripping their blood into the petals of two roses.
At the costume ball, Elizabeth is forced into a dance with Alois, so Ciel joins the dance to get closer to her. As Ciel and Alois pass one another, they each make a separate vow, in that they will exact their revenge on each other. Once again, Sebastian and Ciel are invited to the Trancy estate. Ciel initially rejects the invitation, but after discovering some clues pertaining to the murder of his parents, he decides to pay Alois a visit, though only for the purpose of killing him. At the Trancy estate, Alois has already prepared an enormous chessboard for Sebastian, Claude, Hannah, and the servant triplets to battle on while the two young lords observe from afar.
The Viscount of Druitt, showing up a week late for the costume ball, decides to observe as well. The triple servants are easily defeated after Sebastian impales their heads with a spear. Hannah fails to graze Sebastian with her bullets, even to when he mends his jacket.
Sebastian and Claude begin a culinary battle during a tea break, dodging the ingredients thrown at each other, surprisingly creating food sculptures. The two serve desserts to their lords, however the Viscount of Druitt fawns over both desserts to the point of indecision. As the battle resumes, Claude retrieves a demon sword from Hannah's stomach and begins to attack Sebastian at full throttle, soon trapping him in a spiderweb. Meanwhile, Ciel, tricking Alois into giving him a brief tour of the mansion, challenges him to a duel.
He writes in of:. With Macquarie's kickstart Australia eventually proved to be the popular choice. Although the name New Holland continued alongside it for some time, by William Westgarth noted that 'the old term New Holland may now be regarded as supplanted by that happier and fitter one of Australia'. A Queenslander. The term derives from the joking notion as perceived from the southern states of Australia that Queenslanders spend their time putting bends into bananas. An article from 15 July in the Queenslander provides a forerunner to the term when a man is asked by the Queen what his occupation is:.
Further to enlighten her Majesty he explained that bananas grew straight on the trees, and so just before they ripened, his was the job to mount the ladder, and with a specialised twist of the wrist, put into the fruit the Grecian bend that was half its charm. The association of bananas with Queensland 'banana land' is based on the extensive banana-growing industry in tropical Queensland. The Queensland border has been called the Banana curtain and Brisbane has been called Banana city. Banana bender , in reference to a Queenslander, is first recorded in and is till commonly heard.
What do you say to a quick look at the banana-benders? Soon after white settlement in the word bandicoot the name for the Indian mammal Bandicota indica was applied to several Australian mammals having long pointed heads and bearing some resemblance to their Indian namesake. In David Collins writes of the 'bones of small animals, such as opossums From s the word bandicoot has been used in various distinctively Australian phrases as an emblem of deprivation or desolation. In H. Watson in Lecture on South Australia writes: 'The land here is generally good; there is a small proportion that is actually good for nothing; to use a colonial phrase, "a bandicoot an animal between a rat and a rabbit would starve upon it".
Probably from the perception of the bandicoot's burrowing habits, a new Australian verb to bandicoot arose towards the end of the nineteenth century. It means 'to remove potatoes from the ground, leaving the tops undisturbed'. Usually this activity is surreptitious. The bandicooter goes at night to a field of ripe potatoes and carefully extracts the tubers from the roots without disturbing the tops.
Extremely unhappy. Bandicoots are small marsupials with long faces, and have been given a role in Australian English in similes that suggest unhappiness or some kind of deprivation see above. The expression miserable as a bandicoot was first recorded in the s. The large woody cone of several Banksia species, originally as a character in children's stories. Banksia is the name of an Australian genus of shrubs and trees with about 60 species. It was named after the botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who was on the Endeavour with James Cook on his voyage of discovery in After flowering, many banksias form thick woody cones, often in strange shapes.
It was on such grotesque shapes that May Gibbs modelled her banksia men in Snugglepot and Cuddlepie of 'She could see the glistening, wicked eyes of Mrs. Snake and the bushy heads of the bad Banksia men'. Prichard Bid me to Love : Louise See what I've got in my pocket for you Bill : diving into a pocket of her coat and pulling out a banksia cone A banksia man. Oh Mum! Smith Saddle in the Kitchen : Hell was under the well near the cow paddock, deep and murky and peopled by gnarled and knobby banksia men who lurked there waiting for the unguarded to fall in.
A topic of great public interest, especially a political one. The term derives from the notion that a topic is so interesting that it could halt proceedings at a barbecue - and anything that could interrupt an Aussie barbecue would have to be very significant indeed! The term was coined by Australian prime minister John Howard in in the context of balancing work pressures with family responsibilities. Barbecue stopper is now used in a wide range of contexts.
For an earlier discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from August The name of the Barcoo River in western Queensland has been used since the s as a shorthand reference for the hardships, privations, and living conditions of the outback. Poor diets were common in remote areas, with little access to fresh vegetables or fruit, and as a result diseases caused by dietary deficiencies, such Barcoo rot —a form of scurvy characterised by chronic sores—were common.
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Another illness probably caused by poor diet was Barcoo sickness also called Barcoo vomit , Barcoo spew , or just Barcoo , a condition characterised by vomiting. Barcoo can also typify the laconic bush wit. To give support or encouragement to a person, team, etc. Some claim barrack comes from Australian pidgin to poke borak at 'to deride', but its origin is probably from Northern Irish barrack 'to brag; to be boastful'.
By itself barrack meant 'to jeer' and still does in British English , but the form barrack for transformed the jeering into cheering in Australian English.
The opening of the starting gates to begin a horserace. In horseracing the barrier is a starting gate at the racecourse. The word barrier is found in a number of horseracing terms in Australian English including barrier blanket a heavy blanket placed over the flanks of a racehorse to calm it when entering a barrier stall at the start of a race , barrier trial a practice race for young, inexperienced, or resuming racehorses , and barrier rogue a racehorse that regularly misbehaves when being placed into a starting gate.
Barrier rise is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from October Wilson's colt Merman, who, like Hova, was comparatively friendless at barrier rise.
The word battler has been in the English language for a long time. The word is a borrowing from French in the Middle English period, and meant, literally, 'a person who battles or fights', and figuratively 'a person who fights against the odds or does not give up easily'. The corresponding English word was feohtan which gives us modern English 'to fight'.
English also borrowed the word war from the French in the twelfth century; it's the same word as modern French guerre. But the word battler , at the end of the nineteenth century, starts to acquire some distinctively Australian connotations. For this reason, it gets a guernsey in the Australian National Dictionary. It describes the person with few natural advantages, who works doggedly and with little reward, who struggles for a livelihood and who displays courage in so doing. In Kylie Tennant writes: 'She was a battler, Snow admitted; impudent, hardy, cool, and she could take a "knock-back" as though it didn't matter, and come up to meet the next blow'.
In this tradition, K. Roughly speaking, there are three kinds of people in this country: the rich, the middle class and the battlers'. In the 21st century the term has been used in various political contests as this quotation in the Australian from 1 July demonstrates: 'The Prime Minister, who has built his success on an appeal to Australia's battlers, is about to meet thousands more of them in his northern Sydney seat of Bennelong'.
This sense is first recorded in the Bulletin in 'I found patch after patch destroyed. Almost everyone I met blamed the unfortunate "battler", and I put it down to some of the Sydney "talent" until I caught two Chows vigorously destroying melon-vines'. Again in the Bulletin in we find: 'They were old, white-bearded, travel-stained battlers of the track'. A person who frequents racecourses in search of a living, esp. The word is used in Australia with this sense from the end of the nineteenth century. Cornelius Crowe in his Australian Slang Dictionary gives: ' Battlers broken-down backers of horses still sticking to the game'.
In A. Wright in The Boy from Bullarah notes: 'He betook himself with his few remaining shillings to the home of the battler - Randwick [a racecourse in Sydney]'. In we find in the Bulletin : 'A bludger is about the lowest grade of human thing, and is a brothel bully A battler is the feminine'.
Chandler in Darkest Adelaide c. Meanings 2. This is still the person of the Henry Lawson tradition, who, 'with few natural advantages, works doggedly and with little reward, struggles for a livelihood and displays courage in so doing '. But perhaps the battler of contemporary Australia is more likely to be paying down a large mortgage rather than working hard to put food on the table! Berley is ground-bait scattered by an angler in the water to attract fish to a line or lure. Anglers use a variety of baits for berley, such as bread, or fish heads and guts. Poultry mash and tinned cat food make more unusual berleying material, although this pales beside a Bulletin article in suggesting 'a kerosene-tinful of rabbit carcasses boiled to a pulp' as the best berley for Murray cod.
The first evidence for the noun occurs in the s. The origin of the word is unknown. To display or boast of one's wealth; to exaggerate one's own importance, achievements, etc. In pre-decimal currency days the larger the denomination, the bigger the banknote. Big-noting arose from the connection between flashing large sums of money about and showing off. He had admitted producing it to 'big note' himself in the eyes of the young woman and her parents. Foster Man of Letters : He's never been one to big-note himself.
A member of a gang of motorcyclists. Bikie follows a very common pattern in Australian English by incorporating the -ie or -y suffix. This suffix works as an informal marker in the language. In early use bikie often referred to any member of a motorcycle motorbike gang or club - often associated with youth culture.
In more recent times the term is often associated with gangs of motorcylists operating on the fringes of legality. Bikie is first recorded in the s. For a more detailied discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from March Some bikies procure, distribute and sell drugs through their 'associates', who in turn sell them to kids.
The bilby is either of two Australian bandicoots, especially the rabbit-eared bandicoot Macrotis lagotis , a burrowing marsupial of woodlands and plains of drier parts of mainland Australia. The word is a borrowing from Yuwaalaraay an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and neighbouring languages. The bilby is also known as dalgyte in Western Australia and pinky in South Australia. Since the early s there have been attempts to replace the Easter bunny with the Easter bilby. At Easter it is now possible to buy chocolate bilbies.
Bilby is first recorded in the s. An arm of a river, made by water flowing from the main stream usually only in time of flood to form a backwater, blind creek, anabranch, or, when the water level falls, a pool or lagoon often of considerable extent ; the dry bed of such a formation. Billabongs are often formed when floodwaters recede. A vessel for the boiling of water, making of tea, etc.
It is not, as popularly thought, related to the Aboriginal word billabong. Billy is first recorded in the s. Burrows Adventures of a Mounted Trooper in the Australain Constabulary : A 'billy' is a tin vessel, something between a saucepan and a kettle, always black outside from being constantly on the fire, and looking brown inside from the quantity of tea that is generally to be seen in it. Billycart is a shortened form of the Australian term billy-goat cart which dates back to the s.
In earlier times the term applied to a small cart, often two-wheeled, that was pulled by a goat. These billycarts were used for such purposes as home deliveries, and they were also used in races. The term was then applied to any homemade go-cart. Billycart is recorded in the first decade of the 20th century. Winton Cloudstreet : Bits of busted billycarts and boxes litter the place beneath the sagging clothesline. Any of several plants bearing barbed fruits, especially herbs of the widespread genus Calotis ; the fruit of these plants. Bindi-eye is oftened shortened to bindi , and can be spelt in several ways including bindy-eye and bindii.
Bindi-eye is usually considered a weed when found in one's lawn. Many a child's play has been painfully interrupted by the sharp barbs of the plant which have a habit of sticking into the sole of one's foot. Bindy-eye is first recorded in the s. A fight or skirmish; a collision. Bingle is perhaps from Cornish dialect bing 'a thump or blow'.
Most other words derived from Cornish dialect in Australian English were originally related to mining, including fossick. The word is frequently used to refer to a car collision. Bingle is first recorded in the s. Carr Surfie : There was this clang of metal on metal and both cars lurched over to the shoulder and we nearly went for a bingle. A mongrel.
A dog or other animal which is made up of a bit of this and a bit of that. This meaning is common today, but when bitser first appeared in the s it referred to any contraption or vehicle that was made of spare parts, or had odd bits and pieces added. The small girl pondered. My friends call him a "bitzer"', she replied.
My favourite was a bitser named Sheila. The black stump of Australian legend first appears in the late 19th century, and is an imaginary marker at the limits of settlement. Anywhere beyond the black stump is beyond civilisation, deep in the outback, whereas something this side of the black stump belongs to the known world.
Although the towns of Blackall, Coolah and Merriwagga each claim to possess the original black stump , a single stump is unlikely to be the origin of this term. It is more probable that the burnt and blackened tree stumps, ubiquitous in the outback, and used as markers when giving directions to travellers is the origin - this sense of black stump is recorded from Tracks have been made, commencing nowhere and ending the same, roads have been constructed haphazard, bridges have been built that had no roads leading either to or from them, railways have terminated at the proverbial black stump.
Beyond the Black Stump. Not shown on the petrol station maps, even. A very unperceptive person; such a person as a type. This term often appears in the phrase even blind Freddy could see that. Although the term may not derive from an actual person, early commentators associate it with a blind Sydney character or characters.
Australian lexicographer Sidney Baker wrote in that 'Legend has it that there was a blind hawker in Sydney in the s, named Freddy, whose blindness did not prevent his moving freely about the central city area'. Other commentators suggest a character who frequented various Sydney sporting venues in the first decades of the 20th century could be the original Freddy. The term itself is first recorded in It applied to a person of great heart, who displayed courage, loyalty, and mateship. To defeat a competitor by a very small margin; to win narrowly.
This verb derives from the noun blouse meaning 'the silk jacket worn by a jockey'. As the origin of this word would indicate, much of the evidence is from the sport of horseracing. For a detailed discussion of blouse see our Word of the Month article from November This word is a survival of British slang bludger , meaning 'a prostitute's pimp'. The word is ultimately a shortening of bludgeoner. A bludgeoner not surprisingly was a person who carried a bludgeon 'a short stout stick or club'.
It appears in a mid-nineteenth century English slang dictionary as a term for 'a low thief, who does not hesitate to use violence'. By the s the 'prostitute's pimp' sense of bludger is found in Australian sources. In the Sydney Slang Dictionary of bludgers are defined as 'plunderers in company with prostitutes'.
Cornelius Crowe, in his Australian Slang Dictionary , defines a bludger as 'a thief who will use his bludgeon and lives on the gains of immoral women'. Thus bludger came to mean 'one who lives on the earnings of a prostitute'. It retained this meaning until the midth century. From the early twentieth century it moved out to be a more general term of abuse, especially as applied to a person who appears to live off the efforts of others as a pimp lives on the earnings of a prostitute.
It was then used to refer to a person engaged in non-manual labour - a white-collar worker. This sense appears as early as , but its typical use is represented by this passage from D. Whitington's Treasure Upon Earth : '"Bludgers" he dubbed them early, because in his language anyone who did not work with his hands at a laboring job was a bludger'. And so it came to mean 'an idler, one who makes little effort'. In the war newspaper Ack Ack News in we find: 'Who said our sappers are bludgers?
Cleary in Just let me be writes: 'Everything I backed ran like a no-hoper. Four certs I had, and the bludgers were so far back the ambulance nearly had to bring 'em home'. And thence to 'a person who does not make a fair contribution to a cost, enterprise etc. Niland writes in The Shiralee : 'Put the nips into me for tea and sugar and tobacco in his usual style. The biggest bludger in the country'. In J. O'Grady writes: 'When it comes to your turn, return the "shout". Otherwise the word will spread that you are a "bludger", and there is no worse thing to be'. The term dole bludger i.
From the following year we have a citation indicating a reaction to the use of the term: Cattleman Rockhampton 'Young people are being forced from their country homes because of a lack of work opportunities and the only response from these so-called political protectors is to label them as dole bludgers'. Throughout the history of the word, most bludgers appear to have been male.
The term bludgeress made a brief appearance in the first decade of this century - 'Latterly, bludgers, so the police say, are marrying bludgeresses' Truth 27 September - but it was shortlived. The word bluey in Australian English has a variety of meanings. The most common is the swag i. There's the everlasting swaggie with his bluey on his back who is striking out for sunset on the Never-never track.
Goodge, Hits! The association of the swaggie and his bluey continues in more recent evidence for the term:. A swaggie suddenly appeared out of the bush, unshaven, with wild, haunted eyes, his bluey and billycan on his back. Cross, George and Widda-Woman That bluey is later transferred to luggage in general, is perhaps not surprising in an urban society which romanticises its 'bush' tradition:. Canberra Times 19 Nov.
Later that night, someone kills Sebastian. Although in general it was the combination of ingredients which made these remedies specific to cancer, there was one notable exception. Methodus Medendi. With the competition over, Prince Soma and Agni bid farewell to Ciel and Sebastian and return to their homeland. This chapter also looks to scholarship on other, more studied, diseases in order to contextualise some of the methods and ingredients employed in the treatment of cancer.
The word has been used to denote another item of clothing - denim working trousers or overalls - but the citation evidence indicates the last citation being that this usage is no longer current. More familiar is the use of bluey to describe a summons, especially for a traffic offence originally printed on blue paper :. Perhaps the most Australian use of bluey is the curious use of it to describe a red-headed person first recorded in :.
Paterson, Shearer's Colt : 'Bluey', as the crowd called him, had found another winner. All red-haired men are called 'Bluey' in Australia for some reason or other. Conquest, Dusty Distances : I found out later that he was a native of New South Wales, called ' Bluey because of his red hair - typical Australian logic. A more literal use of bluey in Australian English is its application to fauna whose names begin with blue and which is predominantly blue in colour:.
Ornithologists refer to them as some species of wood swallow They're all 'blueys' to us. There are two senses of the word bodgie in Australian English, both probably deriving from an earlier now obsolete word bodger. The obsolete bodger probably derives from British dialect bodge 'to work clumsily'. In Australian English in the s and s bodger meant: 'Something or occasionally someone which is fake, false, or worthless'. The noun was also used adjectivally. Typical uses:. Hardy, Power without Glory : This entailed the addition of as many more 'bodger' votes as possible.
Baker, The Australian Language : An earlier underworld and Army use of bodger for something faked, worthless or shoddy. For example, a faked receipt or false name.. The word bodger was altered to bodgie , and this is now the standard form:. White, Silent Reach : This heap is hot - else why did they give it a one-coat spray job over the original white duco and fix it with bodgie number plates? In the s another sense of bodgie arose. The word was used to describe a male youth, distinguished by his conformity to certain fashions of dress and larrikin behaviour; analogous to the British 'teddy boy':.
This sense of bodgie seems to be an abbreviation of the word bodger with the addition of the -ie -y suffix. Mr Hewett says his research indicates that the term 'bodgie' arose around the Darlinghurst area in Sydney. It was just after the end of World War II and rationing had caused a flourishing black market in American-made cloth. This sense of bodgie belongs primarily to the s, but bodgie in the sense 'fake, false, inferior, worthless' is alive and flourishing in Australian English. An uncultured and unsophisticated person; a boorish and uncouth person.
The early evidence is largely confined to teenage slang. Some lexicographers have suspected that the term may derive from the Bogan River and district in western New South Wales, but this is far from certain, and it seems more likely to be an unrelated coinage. The term became widespread after it was used in the late s by the fictitious schoolgirl 'Kylie Mole' in the television series The Comedy Company.
In the Daily Telegraph 29 November , in an article headed 'Same name a real bogan', a genuine schoolgirl named Kylie Mole 'reckons it really sux' " [i. Someone who wears their socks the wrong way or has the same number of holes in both legs of their stockings. A complete loser'. The earliest evidence we have been able to find for the term is in the surfing magazine Tracks September 'So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens boots for all you uninformed bogans? The term has also generated a number of other terms including bogan chick , boganhood , and cashed-up bogan CUB. She had a quiet, middle-class upbringing in Box Hill, attending a private girls' school.
Our geographic reach is flexible; residents of Taree and like communities, for example, may readily qualify for Boganhood, usually with little or no burdensome paperwork. Affectionate, even I'm a bogan because I'm overweight. For further discussions of bogan see our Word of the Month article from Novemeber , and a article 'Bogan: from Obscurity to Australia's most productive Word' in our newsletter Ozwords. To swim or bathe. Bogey is a borrowing from the Aboriginal Sydney Language.
The earliest records show the term being used in the pidgin English of Aborigines:. Bogie d'oway. These were Colby's words on coming out of the water. Dawson, Present State of Australia : 'Top bit, massa, bogy,' bathe and he threw himself into the water. Yes, said Mr Dixon, any two of ye that can swim. Harris, Settlers and Convicts : In the cool of the evening had a 'bogie' bathe in the river.
Flory was much puzzled till she found out that a 'bogey', in colonial phraseology, meant a bath.
Mackenzie, Aurukun Diary : A bogey is the Queensland outback word for a bath or bathe. A bogey hole is a 'swimming or bathing hole'. The verb is rare now in Australian English. For an earlier discussion of bogey see our Word of the Month article from February A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes in very calm weather or at high tide merely swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water.
The word is now commonly used for the reef or rock itself. Horrobin Guide to Favourite Australian Fish ed. Bombora probably derives from the Aboriginal Sydney Language where it may have referred specifically to the current off Dobroyd Head, Port Jackson. Used allusively to refer to a hasty departure or speedy action. Bondi is the Sydney suburb renowned worldwide for its surf beach.
Trams last ran on the line in , but the phrase has remained a part of Australian English. Bonzer is an adjective meaning 'surpassingly good, splendid, great'. In the early records the spelling bonzer alternates with bonser , bonza , and bonzor. The adjective, noun, and adverb are all recorded from the early years of the 20th century:.
Yuong Jack Hansen undertook to sit him but failed at every attempt. Jack states he got a 'bonza on the napper', at one time when thrown. Cable By Blow and Kiss : Came back grinning widely, with the assurance that it [ sc. A fool or simpleton; a stupid person; an uncouth person. Boofhead derives from buffle-headed 'having a head like a buffalo' OED and bufflehead 'a fool, blockhead, stupid fellow' OED. Bufflehead has disappeared from standard English, but survives in its Australian form boofhead. It was popularised by the use of boofhead as the name of a dimwitted comic strip character invented by R.
Clark and introduced in the Sydney Daily Mail in May For an earlier discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December We get their boofheads so they can have ours. Boomerang is an Australian word which has moved into International English. The word was borrowed from an Aboriginal language in the early years of European settlement, but the exact language is still uncertain. Early evidence suggests it was borrowed from a language in, or just south of, the Sydney region.
While the spelling boomerang is now standard, in the early period the word was given a variety of spellings: bomerang , bommerang , bomring , boomereng , boomering , bumerang [etc]. The Australian Aboriginal boomerang is a crescent-shaped wooden implement used as a missile or club, in hunting or warfare, and for recreational purposes.
The best-known type of boomerang , used primarily for recreation, can be made to circle in flight and return to the thrower. Although boomerang -like objects were known in other parts of the world, the earliest examples and the greatest diversity of design is found in Australia. A specimen of a preserved boomerang has been found at Wyrie Swamp in South Australia and is dated at 10, years old. Boomerangs were not known throughout the entirety of Australia, being absent from the west of South Australia, the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, north-east Arnhem Land, and Tasmania.
In some regions boomerangs are decorated with designs that are either painted or cut into the wood. Very early in Australian English the term boomerang was used in transferred and figurative senses, especially with reference to something which returns to or recoils upon its author. These senses are now part of International English, but it is interesting to look at the earliest Australian evidence for the process of transfer and figurative use:.
By the s the verbal sense developed another meaning: 'to return in the manner of a boomerang; to recoil upon the author ; to ricochet'. Australia's a big country An' Freedom's humping bluey And Freedom's on the wallaby Oh don't you hear her Cooee, She's just begun to boomerang She'll knock the tyrants silly. On 13 November the Canberra Times reported that 'Greg Chappell's decision to send England in appeared to have boomeranged'.
These verbal senses of boomerang have also moved into International English. For a further discussion of boomerang see the article 'Boomerang, Boomerang, Thou Spirit of Australia! The phrase is first recorded in the s. A tax avoidance scheme. In the late s a large number of bottom of the harbour schemes were operating in corporate Australia. The term is usually used attributively. Hyland Diamond Dove : The feller in the dock was some fabulous creature - part lawyer, part farmer - who'd been caught in a bottom-of-the-harbour tax avoidance scheme.
An employee responsible for maintaining the outer fences on a station, or a publicly owned vermin-proof fence. This sense of boundary rider is recorded from the s but in more recent years, as a result of changes in technology and modes of transport, this occupation has become relatively rare. Since the s the term has been used of a boundary umpire in Australian Rules Football, a cricketer in a fielding position near the boundary, and a roving reporter at a sporting game.
For a more detailed discussion of the original sense of boundary rider and the later sporting senses see our Word of the Month article from December McGinnis Tracking North : Mechanisation had finally reached the open-range country. There were no more pumpers or boundary riders. Be the unlikely winner of an event; to win an event coming from well behind. For a detailed discussion of this phrase see our blog 'Doing a Bradbury: an Aussie term born in the Winter Olympics' which includes a video of Bradbury's famous win , and our Word of the Month article from August The Socceroos need some of that luck.
The practice of improperly increasing the membership of a local branch of a political party in order to ensure the preselection of a particular candidate. The term is a specific use of branch meaning 'a local division of a political party'. While the practice described by branch stacking has been around for a very long time, the word itself is first recorded in the s.
Leaving immediately; making a hasty departure; at full speed. It is likely that this expression was first used in horseracing to refer to a horse that moved very quickly out of the starting gates. Bray Blossom : 'Come on youse blokes! First sign of a better offer and they are off like a bride's nightie. An invitation to bring a plate of food to share at a social gathering or fundraiser. There are many stories of new arrivals in Australia being bamboozled by the instruction to bring a plate. As the locals know, a plate alone will not do.
In earlier days the request was often ladies a plate , sometimes followed by gentlemen a donation. Ladies bring a plate. Please bring a plate. All welcome. A wild horse.
The origin for this term is still disputed. Curr in Australian Race gives booramby meaning 'wild' in the language of the Pitjara or Pidjara or Bidjara people of the region at the headwaters of the Warrego and Nogoa Rivers in south-western Queensland. This is in the general location of the earliest evidence, but the language evidence has not been subsequently confirmed.
This origin was popularised by Paterson in an introduction to his poem 'Brumby's run' printed in A common suggestion is that brumby derives from the proper name Brumby. This theory was also noted by E. Morris in Austral English in 'A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name Brumby, viz. Over the years, various Messrs Brumby have been postulated as the origin. More recently, Dymphna Lonergan suggested that the word comes from Irish word bromaigh , the plural form of the word for a young horse, or colt.
McGinnis Wildhorse Creek : The country's rotten with brumbies. A forlorn hope; no prospect whatever. One explanation for the origin of the term is that it comes from the name of the convict William Buckley, who escaped from Port Phillip in and lived for 32 years with Aboriginal people in southern Victoria. A second explanation links the phrase to the Melbourne firm of Buckley and Nunn established in , suggesting that a pun developed on the 'Nunn' part of the firm's name with 'none' and that this gave rise to the formulation 'there are just two chances, Buckley's and none'.
This second explanation appears to have arisen after the original phrase was established. For an earlier discussion about the origin of the term buckley's chance see the article 'Buckley's' in our Ozwords newsletter. It should have been Buckley. Olympus explains that he altered it because he didn't want the Fitzroy men to have 'Buckley's chance'. A pair of close-fitting male swimming briefs made of stretch fabric. The Australian term is probably a variation of the international English grape smugglers for such a garment.
The term is a jocular allusion to the appearance of the garment. Budgie smugglers is first recorded in the late s. For a more detailed discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December That, and a thin pair of Speedos so figure-hugging you can see every goosebump - flimsy togs that are known not-all-that-affectionately by us Brown boys as budgie smugglers! A kind of fine powdery dirt or dust, often found in inland Australia.
Roads or tracks covered with bulldust may be a hazard for livestock and vehicles, which can become bogged in it. It is probably called bulldust because it resembles the soil trampled by cattle in stockyards. The word can also be used as a polite way of saying bullshit. Both senses of the word are first recorded in the s. This 'bull' dust might be about two feet deep, and cakes on the surface, so that it is hard to penetrate. I told him that nothing would get within a 'bull's roar' of Agricolo to interfere with him, and such was the case.
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This discovery could have implications for combating obesity in humans. How genetic and environmental factors contribute to the generation of various subtypes of inhibitory neurons called interneurons in the brain is unclear. A study in mice provides new insight into this process. Review Article 01 August Article 16 July Analysis of more than 1, microbial genomes sheds light on the processing of carbon released as permafrost thaws. Article 18 July Letter 01 August Letter 18 July