Quantum Nanotechnology

Quantum Nanoscience
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Nanophysics

One of such promising devices is the so-called a SINIS single-electron transistor containing ultrasmall tunnel junctions made of superconductors and normal metals. In this project, you will design, fabricate and measure the SINIS single-electron transistor to understand and eliminate error events in electron tunnelling. The project will be conducted in collaboration with Aalto University and the National Physical Laboratory. The fabrication will take place in the cleanroom of the Lancaster Quantum Technology Centre. The fabricated devices will be characterised in a dilution refrigerator at millikelvin temperatures.

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The ability to cool materials to millikelvin temperatures has been the foundation of many breakthroughs in condensed matter physics and nanotechnology. At this frontier, quantum behaviour can be studied by making devices smaller and colder, increasing coherence across the system. The goal of this project is to apply a new technique — on-chip demagnetisation refrigeration — to reach temperatures below 1 millikelvin in nanoelectronic structures.

This will open a new temperature range for nanoscale physics. As experiments are pushed into the sub-millikelvin regime, it becomes increasingly difficult to measure and define the temperature of a material or device. The thermal coupling between various sub-systems in can be extremely small; for example, the electrons in the metal wires contacting an on-chip structure can be at a different temperature to the electrons in the chip, the phonons in the chip, and the apparatus that you are using to cool it.

This situation calls for a variety of thermometry techniques, each suited to measuring the temperature of a different physical system. The thermometers must also have extremely low heat dissipation and excellent isolation from the room temperature environment. This project will include the development of new and existing thermometry techniques that are suitable for sub-millikelvin temperatures.

Devices will be produced in the Lancaster Quantum Technology Centre cleanroom, and by our collaborators. Experiments will be conducted using the cutting-edge facilities of the Ultralow Temperature Physics group at Lancaster. The most important component for building superconducting circuits is the Josephson junction.

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It has recently been found that graphene, encapsulated in boron nitride and placed between superconducting contacts, can form high-quality Josephson junctions. What is more, these junctions can be controlled using local voltages, which is not normally possible. So far, graphene junctions have been used to build simple superconducting devices SQUIDs and qubits but their full potential has not been explored.

Introduction

This project aims to study new types of a superconducting circuit that exploit the special properties of graphene junctions. As well as learning about the physics of the superconducting proximity effect in graphene, the circuits will be used to demonstrate applications of these junctions in ultra-sensitive amplification and sensing principally magnetic field sensing.

IsoLab provides three highly-isolated laboratories for testing the electrical, mechanical and optical properties of materials and devices. One of the three laboratories is equipped with a dilution refrigerator capable of cooling samples below 10 milliKelvins. The refrigerator is housed in an electromagnetically shielded room and rests on a tonne concrete block to provide vibration isolation. As well as studying new devices, this project will also include testing and development of the IsoLab environment.

A student working on this project will learn how to design and fabricate nanoelectronic devices and study their electrical characteristics at low temperature. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers VCSELs are very small cheap and efficient compound semiconductor laser diodes with established markets in optical datacoms and laser printing.

Strong interaction with industrial partners is expected. The PhD starting date is 1 October Funding is for 4 years and is available to citizens of the UK and the European Union subject to residency status. Lancaster University is offering a PhD project to study superconducting quantum devices, with a focus on Josephson parametric amplifiers operating at millikelvin temperatures.

The start date is 1 October Quantum technologies require the preparation, manipulation and readout of quantum states that are sensitive to noise and prone to decoherence. One of the most promising approaches is based on using superconducting circuits that benefit from extremely low dissipation and well-established fabrication process. The challenge in the field is handling quantum states with the utmost care and amplifying extremely weak signals using advanced instrumentation.

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Recent developments depend on the availability of cryogenic amplifiers with sufficient gain and bandwidth, and with an added noise level that is only limited by intrinsic quantum fluctuations. Existing semiconductor and superconducting amplifiers all suffer from compromises in one or more of these critical specifications. Zorin, Phys. Applied 6, is predicted to outperform the existing versions of parametric amplifiers in gain, bandwidth and simplicity of construction.

The project will be undertaken in the Lancaster Quantum Technology Centre. The work is experimental and an essential part of the project will be device fabrication using state-of-the-art nanofabrication facilities available in the LQTC cleanroom. The student will gain experience of working in a cleanroom environment and acquire practical skills in electron-beam and photolithography, thin-film deposition and plasma processing.

Quantum Nanotechnology

Quantum nanoscience is the basic research area at the intersection of nanoscale science and quantum science that creates the understanding that enables development of nanotechnologies. The production of a working quantum computer has become a real possibility, thanks to recent developments in the nanotechnology field, but there is still a long .

They will be assisted by the experienced dedicated cleanroom technicians and academic staff who have the expertise and hands-on experience in nanofabrication. Device characterisation will be performed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator equipped with microwave measurement lines and cold amplifiers. We welcome those who would contribute to the further diversification of our department.

Please contact Prof Yuri Pashkin y. This project aims to develop broadly tunable mid-infrared VCSEL devices and explore its use for interferometry. Precise tuning of the emitting wavelength of VCSEL pairs through self-heating phenomena will be explored to investigate the use in interferometry.

The project will be closely incorporated with MIRICO, a company dedicated in gas analysing based on laser interference induced by phase shift. The success of the project will provide a completely new technology for gas analysing, which can provide significantly improved accuracy, response time and compactness, with massively reduced cost.

The PhD candidate will be in a consortium including physicists, environmental scientists and instrumental engineers if the bid is successful. Temperature is a fundamentally important thermodynamic parameter. For life, the temperature range is markedly restricted by phase transitions in biomolecules, biomolecular assemblies and physiological environment limitations. Expanding these boundaries, an ability to reversibly freeze physiological processes making life dormant and to revive at will would be invaluable.

This PhD project that is a collaboration between Lancaster Physics and Biology and Life Sciences will identify, quantify and manage nanoscale, the physical and biological impact of cryo-induced changes. It will use the effects of low temperatures on life as a versatile biocompatible physical interrogation revealing novel principles of function of biological objects from molecular assemblies through to tissues.

You will study the nanoscale structure of systems quenched at variable stages of the cryo-process will be investigated via scanning probe nano-tomography, providing 3D nano-maps of key physicochemical properties — mechanical affecting crystallisation , thermal governing ice-nucleation , dielectric water content and spectrochemical biomolecular nano-identification , developing a fundamental knowledge of low temperature influence on biosystems across diverse length scales. The properties, morphology and quality of multiple buried layers and interfaces are crucial for the development of novel devices, improving device performance and optimization of production processes.

Unfortunately, the key active layers case hidden 10s to s nm deep under the device's surface. The PhD project will make a step-change offering a new widely applicable concept for fast and efficient 3D characterisation of nanomaterials and devices. These are studied by the material sensitive scanning probe microscopy SPM , revealing 3D morphology, composition, strain and crystalline quality via local physical properties —mechanical and piezoelectric moduli, nanoscale heat conductance, work function and electrical conductivity.

This capability not existing before the Lancaster developments have huge potential in revolutionizing how we can explore and develop new nanoscale devices from microelectronics and lasers to biosensors. Whereas graphene unique electron mobility and current densities - have been thoroughly investigated, its thermal properties, equally exceptional, are comparatively unexplored. In the thermal world, graphene is the highest thermal conductivity material, whereas another two-dimensional material 2DM , WSe2, possess the lowest cross-plane thermal conductance. Some recent preliminary studies at Lancaster of thermoelectric TE properties of graphene nanoconstrictions strongly suggest that the geometric dimensions of current and heat bearing pathways in the 2DMs lead to novel TE phenomena.

The pioneering paper published by Prof. Exploration and analysis of the heat transport in 2DMs based nanostructures, its anisotropy, the layer number dependence, and the interaction with the substrate including encapsulation. Fundamental and applied results researched in this paper further expand the horizon of nanocomputer theory and nanotechnology practice. It is illustrated that novel nanocomputer architectures and organizations must be discovered and examined to ensure the highest level of efficiency, flexibility and robustness.

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Nanotechnology, from quantum mechanical calculations up to drug delivery

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TEDxCaltech - Charlie Marcus - Nanoelectronics and Quantum Computation

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