Teaching and learning requirements may be substantially re-ordered and the dynamic of learning versus teaching in an AI-based system of education will be very different. This will raise important questions about requirements for teaching degrees and related certificates in this new environment, and the necessary adaptation of the science of pedagogy to these changes. With AI, every aspect of the traditional learning environment is up for reimagining. Will the classroom continue to be a physical space? The distributed, networked, virtual reality classroom is both enormously exciting, and, at the same time, frightening for its potential.
There are major challenges to measuring success in an AI-based educational process. For instance, if our students can become more deeply involved in the pathways of their own learning through AI, measurement will occur moment to moment, as well as the success of remediation.
Worst-case—students already falling behind will be left behind entirely by this new AI-based reality. In any case, there are profound moral questions to consider with a system such as this, and policymakers must understand the underlying dynamics of the technologies at play if they are to fully support society.
The profoundly limiting feature of these opportunities lies in internet and 4G and 5G penetration within the United States, and the sometimes appallingly scarce educational resources committed in some areas in America.
There are large segments of the U. If we hope to achieve our digital potential, and to continue to maintain our lead in AI and other emerging technologies, a national program to bring Wi-Fi and the internet to all our citizens is absolutely essential, and will in any case help to close the sometimes yawning gaps created by racial and income inequality in the U. This reality has profound implications for the field of education and introduces complex ethical, legal, and societal implications that academics, policymakers, and average citizens alike will need to contend with as every aspect of society reshapes around them.
Further, the United States risks strategic inferiority if it does not embrace a full reconsideration of education in the digital environment, to include a comprehensive strategy for reimagining our education system at the national level. I am only passionately curious. Arguably, it can be said that curiosity is responsible for all major scientific and technological advances — the desire of an individual to know the truth.
Coupled with curiosity is the process of experimentation and discovery. The process of asking questions, creating and testing a hypothesis, and repeated experimentation until the truth is found. Further, a monthly module that teaches children how to design and execute valid and meaningful experiments. Imagine children who learn the skill of asking a question, proposing a hypothesis, designing an experiment, gathering the data and then reaching a conclusion. Doing anything big, bold and significant in life is hard work. I imagine a curriculum that, each week, studies the career of a great entrepreneur and highlights their story of persistence.
It would highlight the individuals and companies that stuck with it, iterated and ultimately succeeded. Through the power of VR, volunteers at the lab have felt what it is like to be Superman to see if it makes them more helpful , a cow to reduce meat consumption and even a coral to learn about ocean acidification.
Silly as they might seem, these sorts of VR scenarios could be more effective than the traditional public service ad at making people behave. Afterwards, they waste less paper. They save more money for retirement. And this could have consequences in terms of how we teach and train everyone from cliquey teenagers to high court judges.
Related to empathy, and equally important, is the goal of Infusing kids with a moral compass. Recently I toured a special school created by Elon Musk the Ad Astra school for his five boys age 8 to One element that is persistent in that small school of 31 kids is the conversation about ethics and morals, a conversation manifested by debating real-world scenarios that our kids may one day face.
We all grew up in the classic mode of a teacher at the chalkboard, books and homework at night. But I would argue that such teaching approaches are long outdated, now replaced with apps, gameplay and the concept of the flip classroom. Pioneered by high school teachers Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams in , the flipped classroom reverses the sequence of events from that of the traditional classroom. Students view lecture materials, usually in the form of video lectures, as homework prior to coming to class.
In-class time is reserved for activities such as interactive discussions or collaborative work — all performed under the guidance of the teacher. Students can consume lectures at their own pace, viewing the video again and again until they get the concept, or fast-forwarding if the information is obvious.
The teacher is present while students apply new knowledge. Doing the homework into class time gives teachers insight into which concepts, if any, that their students are struggling with and helps them adjust the class accordingly. Every single one of us is creative. Adapting to change is critical for success, especially in our constantly changing world today.
Improvisation is a skill that can be learned, and we need to be teaching it early. When acting out a scene, one actor might introduce a new character or idea, completely changing the context of the scene. Learning even the basics will help students in virtually any career, from architecture to zoology. Coding is an important tool for computer science, in the way that arithmetic is a tool for doing mathematics and words are a tool for English. Coding creates software, but computer science is a broad field encompassing deep concepts that go well beyond coding.
Every 21st century student should also have a chance to learn about algorithms, how to make an app or how the Internet works. Coding is fun! At its core, entrepreneurship is about identifying a problem an opportunity , developing a vision on how to solve it, and working with a team to turn that vision into reality. You could recreate this basic exercise with a group of kids in lots of fun ways to teach them the basic lessons of entrepreneurship. Related to entrepreneurship is sales. In my opinion, we need to be teaching sales to every child at an early age. The experience of creating a product or service and successfully selling it will create an indelible memory and give students the tools to change the world.
We know that full immersion is what it takes to become fluent at least later in life. But what about for an 8-year-old? Imagine a module where for an hour each day, the children spend their time walking around Italy in a VR world, hanging out with AI-driven game characters who teach them, engage them, and share the culture and the language in the most personalized and compelling fashion possible.
Virtual reality yields the latter scenario impeccably. VR enables students to simulate flying through the bloodstream while learning about different cells they encounter, or travel to Mars to inspect the surface for life. For similar examples, see Mestre, A study of how plants make food was conducted with students from elementary school through college. It probed understanding of the role of soil and photosynthesis in plant growth and of the primary source of food in green plants Wandersee, Many of the students in this study, especially those in the higher grades, had already studied photosynthesis.
Yet formal instruction had done little to overcome their erroneous prior beliefs. Clearly, presenting a sophisticated explanation in science class, without also probing.
Most children bring to their school mathematics lessons the idea that numbers are grounded in the counting principles and related rules of addition and subtraction. This knowledge works well during the early years of schooling. However, once students are introduced to rational numbers, their assumptions about mathematics can hurt their abilities to learn.
Consider learning about fractions. One cannot count things to generate a fraction. Formally, a fraction is defined as the division of one cardinal number by another: this definition solves the problem that there is a lack of closure of the integers under division. To complicate matters, some number-counting principles do not apply to fractions. Rational numbers do not have unique successors; there is an infinite number of numbers between any two rational numbers.
Neither the nonverbal nor the verbal counting principle maps to a tripartite symbolic representations of fractions—two cardinal numbers X and Y separated by a line. Related mapping problems have been noted by others e. Overall, early knowledge of numbers has the potential to serve as a barrier to learning about fractions— and for many learners it does.
Often, students construct understandings like those noted above. Strategies for such teaching are discussed in more detail in Chapters 6 and 7. Prior knowledge is not simply the individual learning that students bring to the classroom, based on their personal and idiosyncratic experiences e. Prior knowledge is also not only a generic set of experiences attributable to developmental stages through which learners may have passed i. Prior knowledge also includes the kind of knowledge that learners acquire because of their social roles, such as those connected with race, class, gender, and their culture and ethnic affiliations Brice-Heath, , ; Lave, ; Moll and Whitmore, ; Moll et al.
School failure may be partly explained by the mismatch between what students have learned in their home cultures and what is required of them in school see Allen and Boykin, ; Au and Jordan, ; Boykin and Tom, ; Erickson and Mohatt, Everyday family habits and rituals can either be reinforced or ignored in schools, and they can produce different responses from teachers Heath, How teachers interpret this reticence or resistance has consequences for how intelligent or academically capable they judge students and their instructional approaches toward them.
For example, a primary school teacher is helping students to understand fractional parts by using what she thinks is a commonplace reference. Most African Americans are likely to serve sweet potato pie for holiday dinners. In fact, one of the ways that African American parents explain pumpkin pie to their children is to say that it is Something like sweet potato pie. For them, sweet potato pie is the common referent.
Even the slight difference of being unfamiliar with pumpkin pie can serve as a source of interference for the student. Rather than be engaged actively in the lesson, he may have been preoccupied with trying to imagine pumpkin pie: What does it taste like? How does it smell? Is its texture chunky like apple or cherry pie? In the mind of a child, all of these questions can become more of the focus than the subject of fractions that the teacher is attempting to teach.
These differences have their roots in early adult-infant interactions Blake, The language that children bring with them to school involves a broad set of skills rooted in the early context of adult-child interactions. What happens when the adults, peers, and contexts change Suina, ; Suina and Smolkin, ? This is an important question that relates to the transfer of learning.
The meanings that are attached to cultural knowledge are important in promoting transfer—that is, in encouraging people to use what they have learned. For example, story-telling is a language skill. Topic-associative oral styles have been observed among African American children Michaels, a,b; In contrast, white children use a more linear narrative style that more closely approximates the linear expository style of writing and speaking that schools teach see Gee, ; Taylor and Lee, ; Cazden et al. Judgments may be made by white and black teachers as they listen to these two language styles: white teachers find the topic-associative stories hard to follow and are much more likely to infer that the narrator is a low-achieving student; black teachers are more likely to positively evaluate the topic-associative style Cazden, African American children who come to school speaking in a topic-associative style may be seen by many teachers as having less potential for learning.
We began this chapter by stressing that the ultimate goal of learning is to have access to information for a wide set of purposes—that the learning will in some way transfer to other circumstances. In this sense, then, the ultimate goal of schooling is to help students transfer what they have learned in school to everyday settings of home, community, and workplace.
Since transfer between tasks is a function of the similarity by transfer tasks and learning experiences, an important strategy for enhancing transfer from schools to other settings may be to better understand the nonschool environments in which students must function.
Since these environments change rapidly, it is also important to explore ways to help students develop the characteristics of adaptive expertise see Chapter 1. The question of how people function in a number of practical settings has been examined by many scientists, including cognitive anthropologists,. One major contrast between everyday settings and school environments is that the latter place much more emphasis on individual work than most other environments Resnick, A study of navigation on U.
More recent studies of collaboration confirm its importance. For example, many scientific discoveries in several genetics laboratories involve in-depth collaboration Dunbar, Similarly, decision making in hospital emergency rooms is distributed among many different members of the medical team Patel et al. The use of tools in practical environments helps people work almost error free e. New technologies make it possible for students in schools to use tools very much like those used by professionals in workplaces see Chapter 8.
Proficiency with relevant tools may provide a way to enhance transfer across domains. A third contrast between schools and everyday environments is that abstract reasoning is often emphasized in school, whereas contextualized reasoning is often used in everyday settings Resnick, Reasoning can be improved when abstract logical arguments are embodied in concrete contexts see Wason and Johnson-Laird, A well-known study of people in a Weight Watchers program provides similar insights into everyday problem solving see Lave et al.
One example is of a man who needed three-fourths of two-thirds of a cup of cottage cheese to create a dish he was cooking. He did not attempt to multiply the fractions as students would do in a school context. Instead, he measured two-thirds of a cup of cottage cheese, removed that amount from the measuring cup and then patted the cheese into a round shape, divided it into quarters, and used three of the quarters; see Box 3. Abstract arithmetic was never used. In similar examples of contextualized reasoning, dairy workers use knowledge, such as the size of milk cases, to make their computational work more efficient Scribner, ; grocery store shoppers use nonschool mathematics under standard supermarket and simulated conditions Lave, ; see Box 3.
There are potential problems with contextualized reasoning, which are similar to those associated with overly contextualized knowledge in general. Could he generate a new strategy for molasses or other liquids? The answer to this question depends on the degree to which he can relate his procedure to more general sets of solution strategies. Analyses of everyday environments have potential implications for education that are intriguing but need to be thought through and researched carefully.
volume in the OECD's Schooling for Tomorrow series is both theoretical and practical. 1. Creating and using scenarios to make a difference in education. Schooling for Tomorrow Think Scenarios, Rethink Education [OECD Publishing] on ebimutijymyj.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. What happens in.
Opportunities to engage in problem-based learning during the first year of medical school lead to a greater ability to diagnose and understand medical problems than do opportunities to learn in typical lecture-based medical courses Hmelo, Attempts to make schooling more relevant to the subsequent workplace have also guided the use of case-based learning in business schools, law schools, and schools that teach educational leadership Hallinger et al, ; Williams, The transfer literature also highlights some of the potential limitations of learning in particular contexts.
Simply learning to perform procedures, and learning in only a single context, does not promote flexible transfer. The transfer literature suggests that the most effective transfer may come from a balance of specific examples and general principles, not from either one alone. A major goal of schooling is to prepare students for flexible adaptation to new problems and settings. The ability of students to transfer provides an important index of learning that can help teachers evaluate and improve their instruction.
Many approaches to instruction look equivalent when the only measure of learning is memory for information that was specifically presented.
Instructional differences become more apparent when evaluated from the perspective of how well the learning transfers to new problems and settings. The amount and kind of initial learning is a key determinant of the development of expertise and the ability to transfer knowledge. Students are motivated to spend the time needed to learn complex subjects and to solve problems that they find interesting.
Opportunities to use knowledge to create products and benefits for others are particularly motivating for students. While time on task is necessary for learning, it is not sufficient for effective learning. Time spent learning for understanding has different consequences for transfer than time spent simply memorizing facts or procedures. In order for learners to gain insight into their learning and their understanding, frequent feedback is critical: students need to monitor their learning and actively evaluate their strategies and their current levels of understanding.
The context in which one learns is also important for promoting transfer. Knowledge that is taught in only a single context is less likely to support flexible transfer than knowledge that is taught in multiple contexts. With multiple contexts, students are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and develop a more flexible representation of knowledge. The use of well-chosen contrasting cases can help students learn the conditions under which new knowledge is applicable.
Abstract representations of problems can also facilitate transfer. Transfer between tasks is related to the degree to which they share common elements, although the concept of elements must be defined cognitively. In assessing learning, the key is increased speed of learning the concepts underlying the new material, rather than early performance attempts in a new subject domain. All new learning involves transfer. Previous knowledge can help or hinder the understanding of new information. For example, knowledge of everyday counting-based arithmetic can make it difficult to deal with rational numbers; assumptions based on everyday physical experiences e.
Teachers can help students change their original conceptions by helping students make their thinking visible so that misconceptions can be corrected and so that students can be encouraged to think beyond the specific problem or to think about variations on the problem.
Effective teaching supports positive transfer by actively identifying the relevant knowledge and strengths that students bring to a learning situation and building on them. Transfer from school to everyday environments is the ultimate purpose of school-based learning. An analysis of everyday environments provides opportunities to rethink school practices in order to bring them into alignment with the requirements of everyday environments.
But it is important to avoid instruction that is overly dependent on context. Helping learners choose, adapt, and invent tools for solving problems is one way to facilitate transfer while also encouraging flexibility. Finally, a metacognative approach to teaching can increase transfer by helping students learn about themselves as learners in the context of acquiring content knowledge.
I have identified what it will take to increase the likelihood of sustainability, using Ontario as a case example. State objectives in education such as crime reduction, equality of opportunity, social homogenization, and national defense are far down the parental list of priorities. These groups challenge the monopoly and legitimacy of schools to distil social values, as they do the objectivity of schools and the scientific approach of teachers. In terms of services provided, schools offer a piece-meal service around a compulsory core of courses. Any particular perception is a point of view which comes from a particular location in the structure: the views of teaching staff, for example, are not the same as those of the managers. Instead, their explorations and ours at OECD will serve futures initiatives to come as they use these methods to shape their agendas for educational change. It is a pipedream to argue only for the long-term goal of organisations or society.
One characteristic of experts is an ability to monitor and regulate their own understanding in ways that allows them to keep learning adaptive expertise: this is an important model for students to emulate. First released in the Spring of , How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior.
This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb.
How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system.
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Page 52 Share Cite. BOX 3. Page 53 Share Cite. In the discussion below we explore key characteristics of learning and transfer that have important implications for education: Initial learning is necessary for transfer, and a considerable amount is known about the kinds of learning experiences that support transfer. Page 54 Share Cite. Page 55 Share Cite. Understanding Versus Memorizing. Page 56 Share Cite.
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